]]]]]]]]]]]]]        THROUGH RED GLASSES DARKLY      [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
         A Critical Analysis by a Holocaust Survivor
                The "Final Solution" in History
             422pp. New York: Pantheon Books, 1989
 by Arno J. Mayer, Professor of European History at Princeton

  Reviewed and uploaded by Herbert Loebel (Freeman 06784LOEB)

     Communism and its variations of Marxism, Leninism and Stalinism
is on the wane, but in our colleges and universities it is
thriving.  Marxist professors indoctrinate our students.  John
Silber, President of Boston University, observed: "The persistence
of Marxism long after it has been discredited by the test of history
is a bizarre phenomenon".  Professor Arno J. Mayer's book "Why did
the Heavens not Darken?" is a example of this phenomenon.
     Mr. Arno J. Mayer, considered an eminent diplomatic historian
holds an endowed chair for history at Princeton.  His book, however,
is riddled with bizarre claims, distortions, even falsifications,
fitting his Holocaust into the Stalinist concept of World-War II.
     To place the Holocaust into historical perspective, his avowed
goal, Mr. Mayer, at the outset excludes two elementary requirements
for scholarly history studies: Footnotes and eyewitness
testimonies.  "Footnotes", he observes, "have become a fetish that
very often interferes with careful intellection and rumination", and
eyewitness testimony of Holocaust survivors, are "unconducive to
critical and contextual thinking about the Jewish calamity".
Unencumbered now, he proceeds to create his version of the the
"Final Solution".
     Stalin proclaimed World War II "a universal conflagration of
anti-Fascist against Fascist, good against evil".  In this concept
another war, Hitler's war against the Jews, has no room.  Mr. Mayer,
intentionally or not, fits the Holocaust into this concept by
downgrading this second war, the Holocausts, and make it appear as
if Hitler improvised it.  He diffuses its Jewish particularity, he
exaggerate the non-Jewish casualties, especially those of the Soviet
     Against all evidence Mr. Mayer declares that the Holocaust was
not premeditated!  That the systematic slaughter of the Jews started
because of Hitler's rage, his reaction to his military failures,
when the war against the Soviet Union began to run aground!  That
the systematic killing of Jews might not have occurred had the
German attack succeeded!
     Mr. Mayer writes:
     "Nazi Germany did not cross the treshold to the willful and
     systematic mass murder of Jews until the war... ran aground",
     in late 1941".(Page 34)

     "Without Operation Barbarossa there would and could have
     been... no "Final Solution".  The gradual miscarriage of
     Barbarossa shook the hitherto unshakable defiance and
     presumption of the Nazi fundamentalists with the result that
     they turned to venting their rage on the Jews."
     (Page 234-235)

     The "willful and systematic mass murder of Jews" started on the
day the war against the USSR was launched, June 22, 1941.  It was
based on an order initiated by Hitler on March 3, 1941.(1)  The
German Army High Command and the Reich Security Main Office (RSHA)
agreed that mobile killing units (SS Einsatzgruppen) would operate
not only in army group rear areas but also in the corps areas right
at the front line.  Einsatzgruppen trapped the Jews in the large
Jewish population centers before the victims, men women and
children, had a chance to discover their fate.  By the time Mayer's
systematic mass-murder supposedly started hundred thousands of Jews
had already systematically been killed.(2)
     To posit that "the gradual miscarriage of Barbarossa" was
needed to turn the Nazis "to venting their rage on the Jews" is
ludicrous.  Hitler was born and baptized an AUSTRIAN Catholic.
Austrian Catholicism is a creed different from others.  It is quite
capable of indoctrinating its disciples with a hatred of Jews, so
vicious, so malignant that they could and did turn genocidal.  In
some of Austria's church parishes "Ritual Murder" is still being
taught, and the Jews are being portrayed as the "Deicide People".

     On pages 118 and 119, Mr. Mayer, uses the Communist cliche
that "Big Business" was instrumental in the making of Adolf Hitler
and Communism played no role:
     "Instead of restraining Hitler and his Nazi ministers, the
     conservatives in the cabinet supported them in their indis-
     criminate assault... on the supposedly ubiquitous and perni-
     cious left".

     "...the old [German] elites kept lending credence to the wild
     exaggerations of the left's strength and militancy..."

     Immediately after WW-I the Moscow Communists started
destabilizing Germany.  The Berlin Russian embassy was the center
for Bolshevik propaganda.  On October 18, 1918 Lenin sent a letter
to the "Spartacus League", (which two months later became the
Communist Party), urging them to form worker's and soldiers
councils, which he said would play the chief role in the German
revolution.  The German Marxists followed the directives from
Moscow.  Funds and leaflets were provided by the Soviet embassy.
Communists plotting and intrigue had immense influence on subsequent
     The extremists of the right and left were assassinating each
other.  Anarchy kept Germany in turmoil.  The chaotic circimstances,
primarily created and sustained by the Communists gave Hitler, who
had promised order, the votes in 1933 to be elected.

     The following, an example of Mr. Mayers sophistry prevalent in
his narration, is conceived io support of his absurd claim, that the
Holocaust was not premeditated.  He invents an Hitler whose anti-
Semitism was "malleable and protean"!:

     "The fuhrer's anti-Semitism was dangerous less because it was
     comprehensive and unchanging than because it was singularly
     malleable and protean".(Page 294)
     If there was a singular unmalleable and unprotean character
trait in Hitler's life it was his hatred of the Jews.  In his
formative years Hitler was exposed to the AUSTRIAN brand of Catholic
teachings with its particular emphasis on hate and contempt of the
Jews.  At age seven he attended a Catholic school.  He was anacolyte
and choir boy.  He later wrote of these experiences as
"intoxicating".  At the Linz Realschule he had anti-Semitic teachers
who compounded his Jew-hatred.  Moreover, his father was an admirer
of von Schonerer, an Austrian racial anti-Semite.  When, as a
teenager in Vienna, he saw the "apparition" of an orthodox Jew, a
"Handelee" with long side-locks, caftan, and wide-brimmed hat, his
latent Jew hatred solidified(4).
     In 1919, a year after his recovery from a Mustard gas attack,
Hitler, addressed army soldiers:
     "If we would have had a responsible government it would have
     kept twelve to fifteen thousand of these Hebrew corrupters of
     the people under poison gas..."
In Mein Kampf Hitler wrote:
     "By defending myself against the Jew I was fighting for the
     work of the Lord... I recognize the tremendous import of his
     fight to save the world from the Jewish poison".
From Hitler's testament, April 29, 1945:
     "... from the ruins of our cities and monuments will rise anew
     the hatred for that people to whom we owe all this, they who
     are ultimately responsible: international Jewry...!"

     Hitler's obsession never changed.  On April 30, 1945, at
2:00pm, Adolf Hitler, the most notorious anti-Semite who ever lived,
shot himself in the head with his Walther Pistol while he bit into a
cyanide capsule.

     On page 426 of his book, Mr. Mayer alludes to the abortive
attempt of the Polish Home Army to liberate Warsaw:
     "With Soviet troops drawing close to the Vistula General
     Bor-Komorowski ordered the underground in Warsaw to rise on
     August 1, 1944... This ill-equipped... poorly led popular
     militia faced a German garrison of about 15,000 professional
     troops... the battle lasted... nine weeks... Being both,
     cunning and overextended, the Soviets provided little aid... At
     least 10,000 Polish freedom fighters sacrificed their lives..."
     (Page 426-428)

Professor Mayer skips the part which exposes Stalin's duplicity:
     On the 30th of July 1944, radio Moscow broadcasted this
     appeal:  "People of Warsaw, to arms!...  Attack the
     Germans!...  Assist the Red Army crossing the Vistula... The
     more than a million inhabitants of Warsaw must become an army
     of a million men fighting for liberation and destroying the
     German invaders"!(5)

     General Bor-Komorowsky, the Polish Commander fell for Stalin's
ruse to destroy the Polish Underground Army which was non-Communist,
as was the rest of the country.  Within five days most of Warsaw was
liberated and in Polish hands.  However, with the Polish Army
fighting inside Warsaw, the sensational advance of the Soviet Army
came to an equal sensational sudden halt at the Vistula where the
Soviet Army stood until the Germans wiped out the Polish Army!(6)


                     MR. MAYER'S AUSCHWITZ
     To a survivor Mr. Mayer's Auschwitz is unrecognizable.  Just as
Stalinist Lillian Hellman found Auschwitz "too Jewish"(7), so Mr.
Mayer has more Gentiles than Jews there:
     "and at all times, there were, however, more Gentile than
     Jewish inmates"(Page 353).

     In Mr. Mayer's Auschwitz more inmates died of "natural" causes
than by gassing!  This is quite an accomplishment, for Auschwitz was
most unlikely place on earth to die a natural death!  Why then a
"natural death" scenario?  It deflates the planned (premeditated)
industrial extermination of Jews, and enhances capitalist hyper-
      Mr. Mayer, it seems, never heard of the so-called "Muselmann",
as we used to call them - the scourge of inmates!  Inmates, reduced
to skeletons and unable to go on, which easily could be seen in
their faces, were nicknamed "Muselmann".  Only a miracle could make
them survive another of the dreaded "Selektionen" which took place
daily.  An SS doctor, usually Mengele, selected inmates who appeared
to him weak and/or sick.  They had to step forward and, after the
"Selektion" was over, they were carted off to the crematorium.
(Mengele, when selecting women, had them run in line by him in the
nude, selecting them for the gas.)
      Mr. Mayer, to strengthen his "natural death" contention
implies that "gassing only developed gradually".  Not so.  In the
beginning Auschwitz was a concentration camp for Poles and Russians,
in the summer of 1941 Himmler declared Auschwitz to become an
extermination camp for Jews(8).  Gassing of inmates started within
one month.  Non-Jewish deportations to Auschwitz were reduced to a
trickle while Jewish transports rose to a flood inundating the gas
chambers and crematoria.  In August 1944 the extermination
facilities peaked with 24,000 Jews killed in one day!(9) (NOTE: In
Mauthausen 10.000 inmates were gassed in three years!)
       Auschwitz inmates, particularly the Jews, were exposed to
continuous "Selektionen" weeding out the weak and sending them into
the gas.  As a rule, not even the ones who collapsed while
performing slave labor were left to die a natural death.  They
either were killed by the Kapo on the spot or upon return to the
barracks were dispatched into the gas.
      Methodically, Mayer, in this book on the JEWISH Holocaust,
embellishes RUSSIAN AND GYPSY suffering:
      "... there were as many Jews as there were non-Jewish Poles
      and Russians in the camps... and at all times, there were,
      however, more Gentile than Jewish inmates".(Page 353)

      About 2 Million Jews were deported to Auschwitz, but a total
of only 12,775 Russians and 20,946 Gypsies were sent there(10).  The
camp population of the western concentration camps, Dachau,
Buchenwald, Mauthausen, Sachsenhausen, Flossenburg, Ravensbruck,
Stutthof, [Gross-Rosen], Neuengamme, Natzweiler, Dora/Nordhausen,
held an estimated 1.5 million inmates of which less than half were
Jews(11).  The camp population of the six eastern camps, Auschwitz,
Maydanek, Treblinka, Belzec, Sobibor, and Chelmno, held an estimated
6 million inmates dead and alive, of which approximately 75 to 80%
were Jews(12).

      "... ultimately, the execrable living, sanitary, and working
      conditions in the concentration camps and ghettos took a
      greater toll of life than the willful executions and gassings
      in the extermination centers..." (Page 349)

Not true!  It ignores that the Ghetto majority was deported and
gassed in Treblinka, Majdanek and Auschwitz.  It dismisses that in
Hitler's six extermination centers 3 times as many Jews were gassed
than the total of non-Jews and Jews deported to all "CONCENTRATION"
camps(13).  In Auschwitz alone 1,600.000 Jews(14) were killed, most
of them sent directly unregistered into the gas.  How could more
have perished by "execrable conditions" if a total of only 405,000
Jews AND non-Jews were registered in Auschwitz during its
      (The Jewish camps of Terezin and Bergen-Belsen are not
included because they were neither death nor concentration camps in
the sense of Belzec or Dachau.  About 60,000 died in Terezin.  The
victims were mostly elderly, who died of disease, malnutrition and
typhoid, rampant in 1943 and 1945.  In Bergen-Belsen, the majority
died towards the end by SS mismanagement rather than by design.)

      The following, reveals professor Mayer's casual manner of
"ruminating" about an historic event.  It also casts an odd
sidelight on his silence about the role Christian teachings played
in the Holocaust:
      "The infamous Crystal Night of November 9-10, 1938 - the
      twentieth anniversary of the revolution of 1918 and the
      fifteenth anniversary of the Munich Putsch of 1923 - was no
      more spontaneous than the great boycott of five and a half
      years before. ...Gestapo locals were notified...to take action
      against the Jews, in particular against their synagogues".
      (Page 168)

      Mr.Mayer points out two anniversaries quite unrelated to the
Crystal Night.  However, he fails to mention the one which most
likely was related - the anniversary of Martin Luther's birthday.
Moreover it was Luther who urged the burning of Jewish synagogues!
Luther in his thesis "On the Jews and Their Lies" promulgated seven
points on how to deal with the Jews.
      The first point urges:
      "First, set fire to their synagogues..."(16)

      Professor Mayer goes back to the Christian crusades of 1095.
He never mentions the role The Christian Teachings of Contempt,
including John's Gospel and written long before the year 1095,
played in the Holocaust.  Moreover, these teachings of hate moved
Pope John XXIII to convene the Vatican-II Council which had the
explicit purpose of eliminating certain anti-Jewish prayers and
accusations.  In 1974 the Vatican's Commission for Religious
Relations with the Jews issued liturgical guidelines to "better
express the thought of the evangelist [St.John] and avoid appearing
to accuse the Jewish people as such" for the death of Christ(17).
Are we to assume that Mr. Mayer believes that Christian teachings
played no role in the Holocaust because he does not mention them?
      Most critics agree that this book is "very dishonest",
"riddled with mistakes and worse", "a pattern of falsification and
distortion".  None of the critics are specific as to Professor
Mayer's distinct Stalinist bias.  For a Jew, a refugee from Hitler's
Europe, a man who lost family in the Holocaust, to falsify the
Holocaust to accommodate his ideology, is grotesque.
      Upon reading Mr. Mayer's book, I was reminded of George
Orwell's rationale for Communist revisionism:
      "Day by day... the past was brought up to date.  In this way
      every prediction made by the party could be shown by
      documentary evidence to have been correct"

Herbert Loebel                                            June 1989.
Sherman, Ct. 06784
(203) 350-4991



2:    IBID
6:    IBID
12:   IBID
15:   AUSCHWITZ 1949-1945

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