]]]]]]]]]]]     HOW THE SOVIETS VIEW NUCLEAR WAR     [[[[[[[[[[[ 

     To Soviet ideologues and strategists nuclear war is not funda-
mentally different from war in general. The basic idea has been 
expressed, for example, by Marshall of the Soviet Union Vasiliy D. 
Sokolovski as follows:
     "A war will end lawfully [i.e. in accordance with the laws of 
Marxism-Leninism] with the victory of the progressive Communist social 
and economic system over the reactionary capitalist system, which is 
historically destined to go under." (MILITARY STRATEGY, Ministry of 
Defense of the USSR, 1969)."
     Moreover, they understand war in general as in the famous defini-
tion by Prussian General von Moltke: "Der Krieg ist die Fortsetzung 
der Politik mit anderen Mitteln (war is the continuation of politics 
by other means.)"
      The two are easily combined, with a little contempt for Western-
style pacifism thrown in: "Nuclear war has not stopped to be an in-
strument of politics -- regardless of the claims of the great majority 
of anti-war movements in the bourgeois world to the contrary. 
Marxists-Leninists, however, will not let themselves be confused by 
the question of whether a thermo-nuclear war is a permissible poli-
tical means." The quotation comes from MARXISM-LENINISM ON WAR AND THE 
ARMY, published in 1972 and mandatory reading for Soviet officers.
     While official Soviet propaganda for foreign consumption stresses 
that nuclear war is unthinkable and would mean the end of civilization 
("The living would envy the dead," Nikita Khrushchev used to say), the 
story for home consumption, and especially in military manuals, is 
very different.
     "Marxist-Leninists decisively reject the assertions of certain 
burgeois theoreticians who consider nuclear war unjust from any point 
of view."               General A.S. Milovidov and Dr Ye.A. Zhdanov in 
                                    ISSUES OF PHILOSOPHY, October 1980

     "In view of the immense destructive force of nuclear weapons and 
the extremely limited time available to take effective countermeasures 
after an enemy launches his missiles, the launching of the first 
massed nuclear attack acquires decisive importance for achieving the 
objectives of war."                           Marshal K.S. Moskalenko,
                                      Deputy Minister of Defense, 1969

     "Marxists have always noted the primacy of the offensive type of 
military operations over those of defense... The idea of vigorous 
offensive actions acquires particular importance under present day 
circumstances."   Gen. A.S. Milovidov (Ed.), "The Philosophical Heri-
           tage of V.I. Lenin and Problems of Contemporary War," 1972

     "We cannot be intimidated by fables that in the event of a new 
world war, civilization will perish."                    PRAVDA, 1955
     "It is disorienting to think that there can be no winners in a 
"nuclear war."           [Same source as last but one quotation above]

     During the 1970's, the US renounced superiority and declared its 
preference for "parity" and "sufficiency." - "Superiority? What is it 
good for? What do you do with it?" asked Nixon's Foreign Secretary 
(then National Security Advisor) Henry Kissinger. The Soviets asked no 
such questions:
     "Trust us, comrades, for by 1985, as a consequence of what we are 
achieving by means of detente, we will have achieved most of our 
objectives in Western Europe... a decisive shift in the correlation of 
forces will be such that by 1985, we will be able to exert our will 
whenever we need to."      Leonid I. Brezhnev on visit to Prague, 1973

     "The Soviet Union has superiority over the United States. Hence-
forth it will be the United States who will be threatened. It had bet-
ter get used to it."                       Marshal Nikolai V. Ogarkov,
                               Chief of the Soviet General Staff, 1979

     Aggression? Here is testimony by the one at the top: 
     "Our response to events in Afghanistan was a lofty act of loyalty 
to the principle of proletarian internationalism, which was necessary 
to defend the interests of our Motherland."    Yuriy V. Andropov, 1982

                              * * * 

     [Sources: WAR AND PEACE: SOVIET RUSSIA SPEAKS, $1.95 from Natl. 
Strategy Info. Cntr., 111 E. 58th St., New York, NY 10022 (1983), and 
article by C.G. Brockdorff in West German daily DIE WELT, 1980.]

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